Karnataka Flat Ownership Act 1973


Act 16 of 1973

Separate law is being made to declare that flats or apartments in multi-storeyed building may, for all purposes, be heritable and transferable immovable property. Owners of such flats or apartments enjoy exclusive ownership of their flats or apartments while retaining an undivided interest in the common areas and facilities which are to be used and owned by all such owners jointly.

An enterprising individual or group of individuals may either construct out of his or their own funds multi-storeyed buildings consisting of a number of self contained flats or apartments and sell them to individuals on ownership basis, or construct such buildings after collecting contributions from intending purchasers of such flats or apartments.

In the interest of the intending purchasers who advance funds it is necessary to regulate the construction, sale, management and transfer of flats or apartments by individuals or group of individuals who construct such multi-storeyed buildings. Hence the Bill.

(a) ‘flat’ means a separate and self-contained set of premises used or intended to be used for residence or office or show-room or shop or godown (and includes a garage), the premises forming part of a building.

(c) ‘promote’ means a person who constructs or causes to be constructed a block or building of flats or apartments for the purpose of selling some or all of them to other persons or to a company, co-operative society or other association of persons and includes his assignees; and where the person who builds and the person who sells are different persons, the term includes both.

(e) ‘to construct a block or building of flats’ includes to convert a building or part thereof into flats.

3. General liabilities of promoter:

(2) A promoter, who constructs or intends to construct such block or building
of flats, shall,-

(a) make full and true disclosure of the nature of his title to the land on
which the flats are constructed, or are to be constructed; such title to the land as
aforesaid having been duly certified by an Advocate of not less than seven years

(b) make full and true disclosure of all encumbrances on such land,
including any right, title, interest or claim of any party in or over such land;

(c) allow inspection on reasonable notice of the plans and specifications
of the building built or to be built on the land; such plans and specifications
having been approved by the local authority which he is required so to do under
any law for the time being in force;

(d) disclose the nature of fixtures, fittings and amenities (including the
provision for one or more lifts) provided or to be provided;

(e) disclose on reasonable notice or demand if the promoter is himself the
builder, the prescribed particulars as respects the design and the materials to be
used in the construction of the building and if the promoter is not himself the
builder disclose, on such notice or demand, all agreements (and where there is
no written agreement, the details of all agreements) entered into by him with the
architects and contractors regarding the design, materials and construction of the

(f) specify in writing the date by which possession of the flat is to be
handed over;

(g) prepare and maintain a list of flats with their numbers already taken or
agreed to be taken and the names and addresses of the parties and the price
charged or agreed to be charged therefor, and the terms and conditions if any on
which the flats are taken or agreed to be taken;

(h) state in writing, the precise nature of the organisation of persons to be
constituted and to which title is to be passed, and the terms and conditions
governing such organisation of persons who have taken or are to take the flats;

(i) not allow persons to enter into possession until a completion certificate
where such certificate is required to be given under any law, is duly given to the
local authority;

(j) make a full and true disclosure of all outgoings (including ground rent
if any, municipal or other local taxes, taxes on income, water charges and
electricity charges, revenue assessment, interest on any mortgage or other
encumbrances, if any);

4. Promoter before accepting advance payment or deposit to enter into
agreement and agreement to be registered.-

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law a promoter who intends to construct or constructs a block or building of flats, all or some of which are to be taken or are taken on ownership basis, shall, before he accepts any sum of money as advance payment or deposit, which shall not be more than twenty per cent of the sale price, enter into a written agreement for sale with each of such persons who are to take or have taken such flats, and the agreement shall be registered under the Registration Act, 1908 and such agreement shall contain the prescribed particulars; and to such agreement there shall be attached such documents or copies thereof, in respect of such matters, as may be prescribed.

6. Responsibility for payment of outgoings till property is transferred.-

A promoter shall, while he is in possession and where he collects from persons
who have taken over flats or are to take over flats sums for the payment of
outgoings even thereafter, pay all outgoings (including ground rent, municipal or
other local taxes, taxes on income, water charges, electricity-charges, revenue
assessment, interest on any mortgage or other encumbrances, if any), until he
transfers the property to the persons taking over the flats, or to the organisation
of any such persons.

7. After plans and specifications are disclosed no alterations or additions without consent of persons who have agreed to take the flats; and defects noticed within a year to be rectified.-

(1) After the plans and specifications of the building, as approved by the local authority as aforesaid, are disclosed or furnished to the person who agrees to take one or more flats, the promoter shall not make,-

(i) any alterations in the structures described therein in respect of the flat
or flats which are agreed to be taken, without the previous consent of that
person; or

(ii) any other alterations in the structure of the building, or construct any
additional structures, without the previous consent of all the persons who have
agreed to take the flats.

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), the building shall be
constructed and completed in accordance with the plans and specifications

(3) If any defect in the building or material used, or if any unauthorised change
in the construction is brought to the notice of the promoter within a period of one
year from the date of handing over possession, it shall wherever possible, be
rectified by the promoter without further charge to the persons who have agreed
to take the flats, and in other cases such persons shall be entitled to receive
reasonable compensation for such defect or change.

(4) Where there is a dispute as regards any defect in the building or material
used, or any unauthorised change in the construction or as to whether it is
reasonably possible for the promoter to rectify any such defect or change or as
regards the amount of reasonable compensation payable in respect of any such
defect or change which cannot be, or is not, rectified by the promoter the matter
shall, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, be referred for decision to
such officer not lower in rank than a Superintending Engineer as the State
Government may by general or special order specify in this behalf, within a
period of two years from the date of handing over possession. Such officer shall
after such enquiry as he deems necessary, record his decision, which shall be

8. Refund of amount paid with interest for failure to give possession
within specified time or further time allowed.- If,-

(a) the promoter fails to give possession in accordance with the terms of his agreement of a flat duly completed by the date specified, or any further date or dates agreed to by the parties; or

(b) the promoter for reasons beyond his control and of his agents, is unable to give possession of the flat by the date specified, or the further agreed date and a period of three months thereafter, or a further period of three months if those reasons still exist, then, in any such case, the promoter shall be liable on demand (but without prejudice to any other remedies to which he may be liable) to refund the amounts already received by him in respect of the flat (with simple interest at nine per cent per annum from the date he received the sums till the date the amounts and interest thereon is refunded), and the amounts and the interest shall be a charge on the land and the construction, if any, thereon in which the flat is or was to be constructed to the extent of the amount due, but subject to any prior encumbrances.

9. No mortgage etc., to be created without consent of parties after execution of agreement for sale.-

10. Promoter to take steps for formation of co-operative society or company.-

(1) As soon as a minimum number of persons required to form a co- operative society or a company have taken flats, the promoter shall within the prescribed period submit an application to the Registrar for registration of the organisation of persons who take the flats as a co-operative society, or as the case may be, as a company; and the promoter shall join, in respect of the flats which have not been taken, in such application for membership of a co-operative society or as the case may be, of a company.

11. Promoter to convey title, etc., and execute documents, according to

A promoter shall take all necessary steps to complete his title and convey to the organisation of persons, who take flats, which is registered either as a co-operative society or as a company as aforesaid, or to an association of flat-takers his right, title and interest in the land and building and execute all relevant documents therefor in accordance with the agreement executed under section 4 and if no period for the execution of the conveyance is agreed upon, he shall execute the conveyance within the prescribed period and also deliver all documents of title relating to the property which may be in his possession or power.

12. General liabilities of a person who takes a flat.-

13. Manager not to cut off, with-hold, curtail or reduce essential supply
or service.

(1) No person, who is a promoter, or who is in charge of management or connected with the management of a block or building of flats whether as member of a managing committee, Director, Secretary or otherwise, or is responsible for the maintenance thereof (hereinafter in this section referred to as “the manager”), shall, without just and sufficient cause, either by himself or through any person, cut off, with-hold or in any manner curtail or reduce, any essential supply or service enjoyed by the person who has taken a flat (or by any person in occupation thereof through or under him) in respect of the flat taken, or agreed to be taken by him.

Explanation I.– In this section, essential supply or service includes the supply
of water, electricity lights in passages and on stair cases, lifts and conservancy or
sanitary service.

Explanation II.-For the purposes of this section, withholding any essential
supply or service shall include acts or omissions attributable to the manager on
account of which the essential supply or service is cut off by the local authority or
any other competent authority.

14. Offences by promoter.-

Any promoter who, without reasonable excuse, fails to comply with or contravenes any provisions of this Act or of any rule made thereunder shall (where no other penalty is expressly provided for) on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both; and a promoter who commits criminal breach of trust of any amount advanced or deposited with him for the purposes mentioned in section 5 shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to four years, or with fine, or with both.

17. Act to be in addition to Transfer of Property Act and to over-ride
contract to the contrary.

The provisions of this Act, except where otherwise provided, shall be in addition to the provisions of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, and shall take effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any contract.


Concurrent Certification for Design and Development of HTT-40 – Aero India Seminar 2017


A very interesting seminar by Pradeep Mahuli from CEMILAC and Prshant Singh Badhaduria from HAL who is the Deputy Project Manager for the HTT-40 Basic Trainer Aircraft made by the HAL. This seminar discusses the new and innovative approach of “Concurrent Certification” taken for the HTT-40 project to streamline the Certification process and cut down the development time till first flight. In summary, CEMILAC, RDAQA which are the certification agencies, were taken on board right from Day 1 by HAL and were given direct access to the Design files. The constant feedback from the certification agencies on various LRUs and parts right from the starting made sure that by the time the SOP was frozen, the aircraft was already very close to the certification. HAL is confident of achieving the certification by the end of 2018, a mere 1.5yrs from the 1st flight.

Some key points are listed here from the presentation.

Clearances and Certification

  • HTT-40 Specifications:
    • Length = 11.3m
    • Span = 11m
    • Height = 3.7m
    • Take-off Weight = 2800kg
    • Internal Fuel = 450kg
    • TO roll at SL = 1000m
    • Landing roll at SL = 1000m
    • Max speed CAS at SL = 400kmph
    • Stall speed = 140kmph
    • Service ceiling = 6000m
    • Ferry Range = 1000km
  • Certification Challenges for HTT-40
    • Stringent timelines to meet user requirements
    • Emphasize on Analysis and Simulation for System Clearance
    • Evaluation of Stall and Spin characteristics using mathematical models
    • Non-availability of Certification documents from (LRU) OEMs due to IPR issues or high documentation costs.
  • LRU Certification: Total 80 Indian LRUs and 65 imported LRUs were certified. LRU Certification was challenge since for some Qualification Testing documentation was not available or OEM were not willing to share. In some cases, if same LRUs were on other certifies systems’ performance from those was considered for certification for HTT-40.
  • Aircraft System Certification: Total of 13 Aircraft systems to be certified. Lot of challenges here as well. Static Test specimen was not available, thus actual prototype wings were used for testing and then fitted to the prototype (proposal accepted with certain envelop restrictions). Unacceptable neck loaded for front seat during ejection for smaller pilots, thus restriction imposed for than <70 percentile pilots.
    • Aerodynamics
    • Avionics
    • Environmental Control System
    • Electric System
    • Escape System
    • Flight Control System
    • Fuel system
    • Hydraulics system
    • Landing Gear System
    • Life Support System
    • Power plant
    • Structures
    • Communication and navigation System
  • Aircraft First Flight Clearance: On 15th May 2016, First flight clearance was issued and on 31st May 2016, the First flight was conducted.

Design and Development

  • Till date, no proactive steps from HAL on BTA development. HAL used to wait for approvals and funding. HTT-40 was a different case, where HAL went ahead with the development by putting money from own pocket and without any commitment from IAF whatsoever.
  • Completion of Design to First Flight – within 11 months
  • Confirmed order of ~70 BTA from IAF now
  • CEMILAC was more of a Design partner than just a Certification Agency
  • With typical approach it would have taken 10yrs for entire development, which is a worldwide norm. But with CEMILAC onboard right from proposal writing stage, the time for certification reduced considerably.
  • Preliminary Design took ~6months. HAL waited for formal approval from IAF for 2yrs, but it never came. Thats when HAL decided to go ahead on its own in May 2013 by investing 300Cr from own pocket. Detail design took 2yrs i.e. till May 2015. And within 11month thereon, first flight took place. Now certification is expected by end of 2018 and starting of deliveries to IAF are expected by 2019.
  • HTT-40 betters PC-7 by good margin on many parameters. This is mainly due to more powerful engine which was selected keeping weaponization in mind.
  • Within first 50 flights, 6 major PSQR requirements are already achieved.
  • Preliminary Design resulted in 4705 drawings. The engine had to be changed midway from PW to Honeywell (PW excused itself from the program for some reasons). This resulted in rework on engine part with 2000 modified drawings.
  • Close 300 electrical drawings were generated.
  • Close to 700 WT tests for initial configuration design. Learning from IJT experience, a mathematical model for the aircraft was developed early into the design cycle. Not that its very critical but absence of it might be an impediment.
  • Early focus on Spin tests, starting from Aug 2015, learning from the IJT Sitara experience. The WT tests done in France show very promising results on spin characteristics.
  • Weight reduction program has already commenced for HTT-40 to make more room for weaponisation.
  • Digital Mock-up (DMU): Fully functional (systems’ functionalities can be simulated) DMU was made which gave a very good picture of everything to all the concerned teams. Production team was involved right in the design phase, again resulting in shorter design cycle with less modification needed on the account of manufacturability. DMU also expedited assembly process since position of all parts was known ahead of time.
  • CEMILAC had full access to the DMU..!!
  • CAT-1 crash on IJT-36 due to FCS circuit issues, which was taken care of in HTT-40 already.
  • Since IAF was not onboard for HTT-40, they never issued any RFA (Request for Action) for maintainability of HTT-40. HAL took RFAs issued for IJT-36 and LCA and incorporated them in HTT-40, to remain ahead in the game.
  • Almost 70% of LRUs in HTT-40 are borrowed from IJT-36, LCA and even from Dornier and ALH. (due to time and cost constraints). This not only reduced development time but also System testing time.
  • The prototypes were built using production level jigs (Would result in quick productionization of HTT-40)
  • Huge participation from Local MSMEs. The target set by the RM of 60% involvement of privet players was met with ease.
  • Total of 4900 parts. Most critical/special components were made in HAL. Close to 3000 parts from private companies. Divided into categories and about 150 critical parts were sent to CEMILAC for clearances. Rest of the parts were cleared by HAL itself with the delegated authority from CEMILAC.
  • Wiring looms (total 180 nos) done on the bench right from prototype manufacturing, reducing wiring time from 2-3 months to 2 days.
  • Wings were outsourced to Taneja Aerospace, but the company went into financial troubles. HAL had to take over the wing production, setting back the program by 2months. This is the reason there was no STS specimen in time. CEMILAC allowed prototype wings to be used for testing upto 100%. Later new set of wings were available for ultimate load testing of 150%.
  • Total 65 EGR (Engine Ground Run) before the first flight, out of which 40 EGR were done ny HAL on its own. Instead of 3days per EGR, HAL could do 8 EGR per day to finish all EGR tesing in 15 days. This followed by the LSTT, HSTT, FRRB etc followed by the first flight.
  • Interesting information – HAL always blamed to have too much FoS on wing design (upto 200%). Ideally wing should break at 151%. For HTT-40, wing broke at 161% in the ultimate testing. This shows the level of optimization. HAL previously has had ultimate failures at >190% for similar wing structures, indicating over design, resulting in overweight.
  • By allowing restricted testing for the first flight clearance, CEMILAC could cut down time by 1-1.5yrs.
  • Fuel system certification using jigs take 1yr typically. But CEMILAC took different approach for HTT-40 based on analysis and simulation, cutting down a significant time of fuel system certification.

Flight Testing

  • Decision on Flight test points. Test point repository was made.
  • Total 490 test points identified. 44 flights taken place and 3 design modification done already, resulting from the flight tests – Rudder design was modified, Fuel tanks were pressurized and Aileron balance tabs were introduced.




Ski-Jumping the Light Combat Aircraft – Aero India Seminar 2017


Seminar by Capt Shivnath Dahiya and Dr. Amitabh Saraf

  • Ski-Jump in Western world, Trampoline in Russian.
  • LCA Navy is an adaptation of a land based Tejas for Carrier-borne  operation
  • Carbon Composite primary structure for NLCA
  • NLCA Empty weight = 8800 kg
  • To prove employment capability on INS Vikramaditya and IAC-1, both of which are equipped with 14° parabolic ramp and a unique Restraining Gear System for launch using hydraulically operated chokes.
  • Objectives of NLCA include development of Carrier Suitability concepts and Full spectrum testing conditions, so that a truly indigenous program can be supported.
  • INS Hansa contains replica of TO Ramp, RGS, Landing facility with two wires instead of three wire on the AC and Luna (?) Optical Landing System, full flight testing telemetry support, arresting engines are fully instrumented and photogrammetric system is in place.
  • Goal of flight testing is to achieve Mil standard Certification for demonstrating various loads and various landing tolerances
  • But no legacy standards or criteria available for Ramp launch.
  • First ski-jump 24th Dec 2014. Till Feb 2017, 13 launches including 2 night take offs demonstrated.
  • Basic validation of performance and flight control model has been completed.
  • Ramp Take-off:- High linear acceleration followed by high Nz, followed by forced pitched rotation with all three LG having true weights on them, high normal load factor and equally sudden drop to nearly 0G with no variation in AoA. Also sudden release of compressed LG oleos and high AOA at speed where control power is severely restricted.


  • Primary systems for TO:
    • Engine – Special testing conditions were created for isolated comprehensive testing for installed thrust measurement, surge free behaviour at in full AB with bleed air shut over a range of load factors and AoA, thrust variations with increasing AoA. All measured and fedback into the simulation model.
    • Fuel System: Ground tests for high flow rate (full AB) under unpressurized tank at various fuel levels. Flight tests for 0G or negative G conditions.
    • Environment Control System: Tested for its ability to keep bleed air shut at high power (full AB) and then reopen bleed reliably. Loss of cooling air to various systems also tested.
    • Landing Gear: LG dynamic characteristics mapped through taxi tests. Aircraft was subjected to 3m/s (sink rate) flare less landing.


  • Modification in the Ski-jump CLAW for Ramp TO:
    • The Ramp imparts high pitch up as the aircraft rolls on the ramp which naturally sends aircraft into high AoA after the exit of the ramp, which is desirable. Legacy CLAW perceives this as uncommanded Pitch Rate and tries to compensate for it using the elevators. This is unwanted since it results in slow AoA rise and depressed trajectory (negative flight path angle i.e. aircraft going down instead of rising up). Thus CLAW needed to be modified to allow the AoA to increase quickly and remain at desired high value for some time after ramp exist. Once the aircraft is airborne completely, this modification would be switched-off.
    • Basic Ski-Jump Mode: The CLAW was modified by clipping the pitch rate and normal acceleration (Nz) feedback on the ramp. Thus no nose-down command using elevators would be generated. The modification to be switched-off immediately when the ramp ends. For this Ramp end event needs to be detected. Initially Weight on the LG wheels (WeffW) was taken as the parameter, since weight on the wheels would go zero immediately when the ramp ends.
    • Advanced CLAW Modification: Required for maximum performance during TO. It would track optimal AoA trajectory after the ramp exit. This mode was ready but was not used in the first flight.
  • NLCA_6
    • In reality WeffW turned out to be a unreliable indicator since it would not drop to zero until the LG oleos were fully extended after the ramp exit, which took 1.3sec owing to the damping introduced in the LG extension (to prevent too abrupt LG extension). In first flight, NLCA flew with clipped pitch rate CLAW for 1.3sec after the ramp exit, reducing its artificial stability and making it pitch-up sharply. Fortunately the Pilot could control the pitch up and reduced the AoA to desired level. Thereafter the aircraft behaves as expected.
    • Flight testing for TO was halted until a more reliable method of identifying Ramp Exit even was incorporated in the CLAW. The new indicator was derived fom combination of Normal acceleration Nz, which should change from >2G to <1G at the ramp exit, and Pitch rate, which shows positive change at the ramp exit. The reliability was checked against variations in mass, inertia, speeds and LG characteristics.
    • As a redundancy feature, to allow better control of pitch-up in case of ramp exit indicator failure, AoA based controller was enhanced in its effectiveness, by removing clipping and applying full feedback even while on the ground.
    • Some other measures for other failures were also included.


  • Armed with the modified CLAW, the second phase of TO flight testing was undertaken. It validated the changes as well as overall aircraft behavior predictions with excellent match. The excess margins built up initially were chopped off slowly and within 5 flights, the NLCA started flying from the RGS.
  • During the flight testing, optimization of various systems were undertaken to enhance the user-friendlessness and make the TO predictable with assured performance every single time, irrespective of the degradation in the aircraft or that of the piloting skills. Some examples include – System optimization, Warning Management, HUD formats, Disorientation issues (Go-NoGo indication based on real time operating parameters, Actual thrust level vs calculated thrust requirement, single button switch to choose between Runway TO vs Ramp TO optimized configuration, Attitude centric display HUD format during Ramp TO as oppose to Velocity vector based HUD format).

(This particular optimization exercise highlights importance of having our own fighter which can be tailor made to the requirements and comfort of our pilots. This would be very costly changes to get it done from foreign OEM, or may not be possible at all).

HAL HTT-40: Updates from Aero India 2017


HTT-40 is a sign of a paradigm shift for HAL. Not only its a first aircraft project, internally conceived and fully funded by HAL, but its a project well done so far. The success so far on HTT-40 project execution shows that HAL can get out of its PSU lethargic nature and deliver on a project in time bound manner. HAL has very extensive experience in systems integration. HAL is already well-established as a Helicopter maker and with on-going efforts on jet engines through HTFE-25 and HTSE-1200, and aircrafts such HTT-40 and LCA MK1A and Advanced hawk, HAL as an OEM is coming of age, ready to shed its “License Manufacturer” tag.

Here is an video showing Prashant Singh Bhaduria, Deputy Project Manager of HTT-40 giving an excellent and informative walk-around of HTT-40.

The video is loaded with key technical details about HTT-40. Here is a summary for the interesting information that the Deputy PM shares (My comments in brackets).

  • HTT-40 is a Basic Trainer aircraft being developed by HAL for Indian Forces and other customers.
  • The project is entirely funded by HAL internally. Close to 500 Cr are being invested.
  • The project was started in 2013. Detailed design was finished within 2 year, by August 2015. There onwards, the prototype was built and first flight took in merely 11 months, on 31th May 2016. (This is an incredible achievement by any standards.!) The target it to get HTT-40 certified fully by 2018.
  • The “Team HTT-40” is the youngest team in HAL ever with average age of 0nly 30yrs. Its unusual for HAL to have such young team handling the entire project.
  • Level of indigenisation: Out of 90 LRU, 75% comes from various HAL divisions, 15% come from Private sector and 10% are imported, mainly the Engine and the ejection seat.
  • All-Metal aircraft (to keep cost as well as development time low). Use of Composites might be consider later on to cut the weight if need be.
  • One key point in cutting down the development and manufacturing time is the high level of participation from local MSME and private players. Out of 4500 parts, 3000parts are fabricated by local MSME.  Second point is, a lot of LRU are reused from existing projects. The project was more of system integration rather than inventing anything new, rather used COTS, fly the aircraft as soon as possible. Changes, plug-ins can be added later on.
  • Extensive involvement of Certification Agencies CEMILAC, RDAQA, FlightOps right from Day 1. So the team never really faced a challenge on this front (A very good sign for Indian projects). Very young teams from these agencies participating in HTT-40 certification
  • Extensive wind tunnel testing was done. Close to 700 test cases were taken up to fine tune the aircraft shape. Spin and Stall tests being done at ONERA, France to map the spin characteristics mapping. The test results are satisfactory and by middle of 2017 HAL is going to carry out stall and spin flight tests. Learnings from IJT experience incorporated in this efforts.  (HAL has learnt a lesson from IJT-36 Sitara project and thus would like to get these crucial tests much ahead in the flight test program. A good indicator).
  • Engine: Turboprop engine Honeywell TPE-331-12B having 1100 shp, fairly modular design. Commonality with D0-228 aircraft manufactured by HAL currently. (Excellent choice to use common engine with existing aircraft. HAL must be quite familiar with the engine already). Entire engine interface was worked on with Honeywell to speed up integration process. Recovery factor of 99.1% achieved for this particular type of engine-intake combination, which is highest in this class.
  • Propeller: 4-bladed Aluminum propeller by M/s Hurtzell
  • Its uses Martin-Baker MK16A Zero-Zero Ejection seat which is better than the competitor (the PC7 MKII currently used by IAF) which uses Zero-Sixty Ejection seat (0 altitude, 90kmph minimum speed).
  • Max speed = 450 kmph (240 knots)
  • Operational ceiling = 6000 m (20000 ft)
  • Climb rate = 6 m/s (20 ft/s)
  • G-limit: +6/-2.5
  • Price tag: INR 42 Crore (~ $ 6.2 M) Cheapest in the category
  • Retractable undercarriage
  • Wing dihedral of 6° and small twist (washout) for better stability and helping it in better recovery in stall and spin maneuvers.
  • Total 3 prototype aircrafts and 2 static test specimens for ground testing. Prototypes are labeled as TSR, in honor of HAL Chairman T Suvarna Raju who has thrown his weight behind the project and gave all the support and freedom to the team. The Phoenix bird painted on TSR002 symbolizes the rising of HTT-40 from the ashes of HPT-32 Deepak which was grounded by the IAF. Also symbolizes the hardship to get the project going in existing environment (No initial support from the IAF, HAL went ahead with the project on its own).
  • Weaponised version of HTT-40 is planned, mainly keeping the export in mind. A 12.5mm gun, 250lb, 500lb bombs planned to be integrated and make the aircraft ready for CAS and Recce role. Since cost of flying per hr for HTT-40 is fairly lower than weaponised helicopter or dedicated fighter, it has economic advantage here. Weaponisation would start once the Stall and Spin tests are finished.
  • Tandem cockpit design. Front for the Trainee and back seat for the Trainer. Both cockpit are similar, except that the Trainer can override controls from the back cockpit.
  • Entire glass-cockpit. 3 smart MFD – 6″x8″ MFD, 5″x7″ ECAS, standby instrument disply, GPS. Can be upgrades to have HUD and cater for weaponised platform. Planning to add one more display so that it could replicate a front end fighter. Thus systems training time from a front end fighter (~30% of total training time) can be carried out on HTT-40, reducing valuable airframe time on the costly fighters. It has got HOTAS in it with the intention of integrating weapons sooner or later.
  • 5oth Flight during Aero India 2017 (within 8 months from 1st flight). Milestones completed include –  Max Altitude, Top Speed, Full G-envelop, 360° Roll, Inverted Flight. For spin tests, Spin Recovery Parachute, called as Anti-Spin Gantry, to be attached to ( one of the?) prototypes.
  • Confirmed orders of 70 aircrafts which are planned to be delivered to IAF by 2021. (Total expected order of 106 for IAF).
  • 30-40 years life span expected with IAF.

Aero India 2017 – Some interesting interviews


Here is a video of the press conference held by the Raksha Mantri Manohar Parrikar on the occasion of Aero India 2017. A lot of interesting tidbit, summarized here:

  • Aero India has been a big showcase event for HAL to show off their achievements. HAL and ADA displays in Aero India 2017 have been fantastic.
  • Rs 1359Cr approved by GOI to set up 2nd production line for LCA by HAL. in next 3 months work should sart on it and in 1.5-2yrs the production will start from this line. This second line is for 8/yr. Existing line has capacity of 8/yr. So total of 16/yr soon.
  • Single engine fighter, SP gun, C295 projects are in advanced stage of decision making. Expected to get them online in current financial year (2016-17?)
  • Civil Aviation Ministry and MoD working together. About 1000 civilian aircrafts, 300-400 fighters and 800-1000 helicopters required in next 15 years. Good scope for IDDM (India Designed Developed Manufactured) model
  • Helicopter engine requirement in next 10yrs expected at 5000 engines (new and replacement).
  • India 9th largetst Civil Aviation Market. Currently growing at ~20% yoy growth rate (Would become 3rd largest by 2022). AAI planning to spend 17500 Cr in next 5yrs. All the infrastructure needs to be upgraded to support the growth. Currently 70 odd operating airports in India. MoD and Civil Aviation ministries have worked on increasing allowed time on AF bases for civil activity, reducing reserved air-space, implementing flexi-sky policies to reduce time and fuel for civil flights.
  • Work in progress to bring MRO facilities for civil jets in India. Some tax issues need to e sorted out. Military jets are taken care by in-house MRO facilities. The concept of Comprehensive Availability of Aircraft in being brought in where OEM has to ensure availability above certain percentage (similar to PBL contract?).
  • Question on KGMT and NLCA (why IN backing off) – IN is fully supporting. Paying 25% component in second line of LCA production. IN wants different type of aircraft – twin engine. IN financing NLCA project as TD. Which version to productionize will be decided later.  This particular version may not be productionised. There may be different additionality to it such as more power (hinting at MK2 to be the one which will be produced commercially..?)
  • Kaveri being revived through offset deal with Saffron, discussions are on. Modifications based on their 83 series engine (M-88??) which is used on Rafale.
  • 100% FDI in defense is being dealth with case-to-case basis. Where there are Indian companies existing, no allowance for 100% FDI (e.g. tents and camouflage).
  • AWACS related question – 6-7yrs for Desi development of AWACS system. Improved availability. 3 Netra are being inducted. Another proposal in pipeline.
  • FICV development partner – every player writing complaints against each other. MoD trying to move faster.Learning on the job to iron out all issues.
  • For more transparency in DGCA, e-DGCA is being worked on.
  • FGFA – Some issues need to be addressed on manufacturing, export etc. Otherwise its in advanced stage.
  • LCH is the only CH in the world which can function at 24000ft at Siachen.
  • MII Single engine jet – India wants the bought jet to be MII. Its the OEM’s responsibility to take their government’s approval for shifting existing line or if they like they can create new line in India. Its their choice. GOI is no way concerned with this.

Interview of Manohar Parrikar with Nitin Gokhale during Aero India 2017:

  • Requirement for both, Single Engine and Twin engine jets exists. The number is under Finalization. Strategic Partner aspect being resolved for the MII production. Decision coming soon.
  • LCA Export. Customer flights in Aero India 2017.
  • AON for 15 LCH given. Tejas MK1A and LCA both approved under IDDM category.
  • Avro replacement contract – CNC stage. Gaps being filled out from earlier DPP.
  • Defense acquisition is a lengthy process. Till now mostly the stuck up projects are being resolved.
  • Apache and Chinook supply starts in 2019.
  • Rafale offset component very less in first 3yrs. Major component in 4th-6th yr from contract signing.
  • Under IDDM, Single vendor situation is OK. No need for special provision.
  • Why Defense budge seems to be coming down – Defense budget based on liabilities which are mainly based on previous acquisitions. Current orders will show up only after 3-4yr. Also cost of acquisition coming down due to increased MII orders, transparency, better negotiation (e.g. Rafale). Use of unused funds (such as few Billion $ lying in US accounts, Money lying with PSUs)

Interview of HAL Chairman T Suvarna Raju during Aero India 2017:

  • HAL has had 15 of own designs and 14 designs under license production.
  • HTT-40, internally funded by HAL, first of its kind project.
  • By 2018 HAL to demonstrate LCA in MK1A avatar with AESA Radar, SPJ pod, IFR and Maintenance ease modifications.
  • LCA first single engine jet to fly in Republic Day Parade in last 29yrs.
  • HAL was ready to ramp up production of LCA, question was which version – MK1, MK1A or MK2. Initially plan was to spend 1600Cr for 2nd line, brought down to 1200Cr. (Actually approved is 1359Cr). 50% contribution from HAL.
  • 16/yr capacity. Major assemblies to Private companies – 5 vendors. If they start supplying, production rate will be >16/yr. May take 2yrs for them to start supplying. HAL hand-holding them.
  • Advanced hawk – created from raw materials. 100 hawks in IAF. 30yr life – will be mods, upgrades over the life span.Weaponised hawk, MoU with BAe. IAF said they are not interested in Advanced hawk. Expecting business, may be from export.
  • Hawk-I is designed/manufactured/funded by HAL.
  • HAL confident in system integration of any sensor on any aircraft.
  • ALH – 5.5 ton.  >200 nos delivered. Availability of 65%. First weaponised helicopter sq inducted (Rudra).
  • LCH order at 10+5 (sanctioned by GOI, cleared to buy material for production, formal order yet to be placed), expected total 163+.
  • LUH – 3 ton. First flight in 2016. Total order as of now 187.
  • IMRH – 10ton class. Within 18 months Preliminary design to finish, then detailed design. For all three forces.
  • HAL expecting 1000 helicopters to be manufactured in next 10yrs.
  • HAL currently has formal order book of Rs 46000 Cr, enough for only 2 yrs.

Presentation on Heat resistant coating for SCBs of AL-31FP (AeroIndia-2015)


Synopsis of Propulsion Presentations from AeroIndia-2015 Seminars.

The video:

http://aeroindialive.nic.in/show_ondemand.asp?id_episode=31&id_part=31 (Seminar 1 and 2)

Seminar 1

Title: Characterization of Heat Resistance Protective Coating (Aerofil) and Chrome-Alumniizing Coatings (Inner Cavities) of High Pressure Turbine Rotor Single Crystal Blades of AL31FP Aero Engine (Sukhoi MkI)

by G K Sadangi (HAL Koraput)


Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide1 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide2 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide3 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide4 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide5 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide9 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide10 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide8 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide7 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide6 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide11 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide12 Coating_SCB_Al31FP_AI2015_Slide13

The crux of the presentation is: Inner coating of Chrome Aluminising Coating. Outer coating of Al-Si-Y. The currently used inner and outer coatings on the SCBs show no significant deterioration even after 1000hrs (= TBO = half the Total Technical Life (TTL)). SO there can be scope for increase in TTL beyond current 2000hrs.

Q: Since the inner cavity has lower temperature, receives cooling air (>> no oxidation) and no gases coming from Combustion chamber (>> no suphidation). So inner coating needed??

A: Cooling air it at 1330 degC. Also cooling air impenges at high speeds on inner surface. So avoiding erosion is also one aim.

Q: Inspection on inner coating??

A: By taking cross section on sample blades from each batch. And Xray inspection.

Q: Any measurements on thermal gradient across the outer coating?

A: Neither the outer nor inner coatings are TBC.

Q: Repairability?

A: The coatings can be removed and re-applied without issue. Thats the beauty of it.


Seminar 2

Title: Development of Medium Thrust Class Turbofan Engine – HTFE25

by Devanathan, AERDC, HAL

Presenter emphasizes on two points:

  • Time should be the first priority.
  • Role of SME is of paramount importance.

Four technical aspects covered:

  • Multi-disciplinary approach for design
  • Systems Engineering Simulation/Concept
  • Digital Manufacturing
  • Testing
  • Currently (Aug-2015) manufacturing core of the engine and soon to be tested.
  • Planned concept is to develop core engine first and then develop full engine based on the platform it would be fitted to.
  • Emphasize on MD design iterations with quick iteration churning.
  • Secondary flows: First 3D simulations to capture flow characteristics and then use 1D models calibrated using the 3D simulations. 1D for unsteady simulations. Verification sing existing engine data done as a whole.
  • Idle = 70% rpm
  • 3D printing technology adapted right from concept stage. Main idea behind this was to reduce lead time to manufacture critical components in order to reduce risk of program. (Since only CAD input need to be changed to change component produced).
  • Casting to be replaced by 3D printing while forging, sheet metal processes retained.
  • Nozzle GV 3D printed with Inconel material – intricate cooling passages with additional which would not be possible with conventional techniques are easily made with 3D printing.
  • CC part- (flame tube section), Turbine blades, HPC all stator vane sectors, HPC tandem stator, gear box parts,

Pros of 3D printing:

  • Practically zero lead time for implementing design change in manufacturing
  • Full Freedom to designer
  • Possibility of lot of weight reduction by having internal cavities at non-critical locations.

Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide6 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide9 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide10 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide5 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide14 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide7 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide8 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide15 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide19 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide13 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide12 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide20 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide21 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide18 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide23 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide22 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide16 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide24 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide29 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide25 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide28 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide30 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide27 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide34 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide33 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide31 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide36 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide32 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide26 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide4 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide3 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide2 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide1 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide0 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide11 Dev_of_HTFE25_AERDC_HAL_AI15_slide37


Q: Why fan under loaded and HPC overloaded (looking at PR)?

A: Only core is being focused on right now. Fan/LPT design will change based on platform requirement.

Q: Surge margin for HPC targeted?

A: Not fixed. Normally its 14-19%.

Q: Which material for Turbine blades?

A: FOr IJT, TIT=1455K, so Inconel718 used. For AJT, something else can be used.

Q: What about Compressor?

A: Forged Titanium. And machined as blisks. Laser welding. First 4 stg = Ti, Last = Inconel718. HPC bolted – like in Al-55. First priority is to get Turbines and gearbox tested and validated (Other parts well within capability). Once this is done, core testing will go on for high altitude test etc, in parallel two (platform specific?) prototypes will be built.

Q: Why build 25kN engine when HAL license mfg same thrust class engines (adour-871 et al). Why not make Al-55 replacement?

A: Initially 20kN was proposed. Since Al-55 is ~17kN, a 20kN would have been good for IJT MK2. But the higher authorities went with 25kN. Wrt adour871 advantage in technology (smaller size, PR 11 vs 20, ~600mm vs ~450mm Turbine dia – huge turbine operating at lower rpm for Adour) , weight and size. So This engine while replacing Adour would give better performance. This engine can be used for Jagaur (which has 28kN engine) as well. Just need to change mounting points (and perhaps LP module?). Its very easy to adjust the design to various thrust levels by changing materials etc. Analysis already done. With similar core 35-40kN is achievable easily. SFC for this engine 0.72, better than older engines.

Future Challenges of Aerospace Research in India by VK Saraswat (Zephyr 2013)


Here is the link to the guest lecture by Dr. VK Saraswat, former DRDO Chief and SA to RM delivered during Zephyr-2013 at IITB.


Here are some key points to note:

  • Brahmos: Efforts to increase max altitude to 18km from existing 15km and doing away the 10-15m altitude phase, the range could be extended to 600km.
  • SR-SAM (Maitri): Smokeless solid motor is the future. With aluminium, you get stable combustion but when you remove Aluminium from the propellant, combustion instability comes into picture. So this is a challenge.
  • LR-SAM: For navy, 250-300km Range. Duel Pulse smokeless solid motor, Phased Array Radar, weight 275kg, Canard control for high maneuverability.
  • Ballistic Missile Defense: No space based detection capability. After Apogee based. Two tier, ground Radar detection based, ~300km range. Exo (>20km) and Endo (<20km). Exo-atmospheric window of interception is ~40s (-330s to -290s to impact) and Endo-atmospheric interception window is ~10s. 99.8% kill probability with 4 interceptors. AAD-1, PAD-1 (Phase I upto 2000km class) and AD-1/AD-2 (Phase 2 upto 5000km class). DACS is future goal.
  • Multiple kill vehicles against MIRVs
  • Laser based interception for Boost phase
  • Cruise Missile Defense system (Our AAD has 15G maneuverability)
  • We lack in propellant technology (246 SL Isp vs 260-280 SL Isp), materials and system miniaturization so our missiles are heavy.
  • SLBM: 6000+km Range, MIRV, Telescopic Aerospike
  • Extendible Nozzle Exit Cone Technology
  • Liquid Propellant Fuel Ramjet for Supersonic (M = 3.2) cruise missile upto range 1000km
  • Missile launched PGMs
  • Kaveri:
    • Twin Spool low bypass engine
    • Air mass flow in = 78kg/s
    • Bypass ration = 0.2
    • Overall PR = 21.5
    • Thrust to Weight Ratio = 7.8
    • SFC: Dry – 0.78kg/hr/kg; Wet – 2.03 kg/hr/kg
    • 3 Stage Fan (with PR 3.4, Surge Margin > 20%)
    • 6 stage Compressor (PR 6.4, Surge Margin > 33%)
    • Combustor (High Intensity annular type, efficiency > 99%, Pressure loss 5.5%)
    • HP Turbine (cooled single stage, TET = 1700K, PR = 3.62)
    • LP Turbine (cooled single stage, PR = 2.12)
    • Dry Thrust = 52kN
    • Wet Thrust = 78kN
    • 55hrs of flight thrust. (some buffeting problems and some issues with fan).

Maiden flight of 1st Production LCA SP-1..!!


So finally, the much awaited maiden flight of the first production LCA SP-1 happened on 30th Sept 2014. Following news item by Anantha Krishanan M (Tarmak007).


Bangalore: The Indian Air Force’s (IAF) wait to induct a home-grown fighter jet into its squadron inched a step closer when the first Tejas series production (SP-1) aircraft kissed the skies on Tuesday. Military sources confirmed to Express that during the 25-minute flight, Tejas SP-1 touched a maximum speed of 0.6 Mach, copying textbook maneuvers befitting a maiden outing. The sole take-away from this flight was the fact that there was no telemetry support to the pilot.
Built by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) and designed by Aeronautical Development Agency, the Tejas SP-1 was flown by seasoned Test Pilot Air Commodore (Retd) K A Muthanna, with a Hawk trainer as the chase aircraft. “We did the HSTT (High Speed Taxi Trial) on Monday and the test results were flawless. During today’s flight, the pilot had no link-up with the telemetry team during the entire duration of the flight. This is a first for the programme, similar to what happens while in a squadron scenario,” an official associated with project said.
The build of the Tejas SP-1 seems to have given the team huge confidence to go for the maiden flight. “We had no corrections to make before and after the flight. This is different from what we were used to on earlier occasions. The production version aircraft is definitely superior on all fronts. We will resume the flight on SP-1 after a week,” the official said.
While the programme has to travel some more distance before the much-awaited induction into the IAF, two Tejas aircraft from the flight test programme are currently in Jaisalmer undertaking ‘bombing mission.’ “New weapons (250 kg and 450 kg bombs) are being integrated into the aircraft. The AoA (Angle of Attack) is also coming closer to 26 degrees, which helps the pilot to undertake care-free manoeuvring. In the next there months we are also lining up the aircraft to fire some new missiles as well,” the official said.

An exhilarating news. Great confidence booster for the team LCA. As per plan 20 fighter jets are to be manufactured according to IOC-2 standard. Another 20 will have FOC standard. Now FOC is expected to be achieved by March-2015.

A flood of good news from Sourav Jha on LCA through twitter for jingos – “Dil garden garden ho gaya!!

  • Flight envelop expansion to AoA – 26°
  • Derby, Python firing soon, expected to be piece of cake. Other missiles will follow soon.
  • More A2G type weapons to be integrated.
  • IFR integration is also expected to be a non-event, Great!!
  • Most important of all – Gun firing on ground is done. Once flight testing on Gun firing is done, it should be a great moral booster for team LCA, looking from history point of view, as this very same thing proved to be the Achilles’ heal for HF-24.
  • FOC is expected by March 2015. A little late but better late than never.

I would be waiting for the day when LCA would prove its mettle and would give a tight slap to all those who tried to sabotage/impede the programme or were too skeptical to see anything good in it. Should be a quantum jump in the capability as well as confidence for Bharat.

Here are some pictures:





Some more good news:
We should seriously put in some more money and efforts in Kaveri. Its absolutely imperative for us to successfully make a reliable jet engine. The development is impeded by lack of basic testing facilities and resources and plagued by bad project management.

Concept of Language by Noam Chomsky


This is an interesting interview showcasing some key pointers about what is language from the Noam Chomsky’s perspective. Some interesting things that he points out is:

  • There is no such thing as language.
  • There is no such thing as a standard or pure language. Its mostly a political construct.
  • Concept of pure or national language is recent phenomenon.
  • Chinese is not a single language but amalgamation of various languages united by the polity.
  • Except, perhaps US, most of the other world has inhomogeneity in languages, dialects change as you go.
  • The process of understanding of language and how it seem to be different than mere set of fixed rules.
  • The fascinating process of a child learning language (one word per hour in perhaps single exposure at the peak rate).

And some more.